Papaya Class 1
Lesson 1: The Preterite Tense The preterite is one of the principle past tenses in Spanish. Its uses: -To express that an action happened and was completed in the past. -To express that an action happened or began at a particular time in the past. (When we go over the IMPERFECT tense, you?ll see that the first use is relative.) Examples: Ayer, hablé con dos estudiantes. (Yesterday, I spoke with two students.) Hace tres años, viajé a Ecuador. (Three years ago, I traveled to Ecuador.) Lesson 2: First Conjugation Verbs in the Preterite (-AR Verbs) First conjugation preterite endings are as follows: -é -amos -aste -ó -aron Example: HABLAR hablé hablamos hablaste habló hablaron Lesson 3: Second and Third Conjugation Verbs in the Preterite (-ER & -IR Verbs) Second and third conjugation preterite endings are the same: -í -imos -iste -ió -ieron Examples: COMER comí comimos comiste comió comieron VIVIR viví vivimos viviste vivió vivieron Assignment 1 Practice the form of the preterite by writing out the full conjugation for three regular verbs from each group (3 -AR, 3 -ER, 3 -IR). Assignment 2 Practice these verbs and others ORALLY, conjugating them by memory, without looking, until you have them down. Assignment 3 Write a page, double spaced, which details a sequence of events from yesterday, or your last trip to Cancún or whatever.
All verbs should be in the preterite. Endeavor to use all regular verbs. It should be, "This happened, then this happened, then this happened?" Example: Volé a Cancún. Salí del avión. Entré al baño. Oriné. Etc. Assignment 4 Read a children's book and bring it to class.
Papaya Class 2
Lesson Imperfect tense The imperfect is used to express actions in the past from the perspective that they are not complete. This does not mean that, relative to the present they are not complete. Usually it is relative to other actions in the past. Principal uses: 1. As a context for other actions. Cuando yo caminaba al mercado, vi un pájaro. (When I was walking to the market, I saw a bird.) 2. To describe habitual or frequent actions in the past. Durante los años 90, yo comía mucho en el Restaurante Otto's. (During the 90s, I ate at Otto's Restaurant a lot.) All verbs are regular in imperfect (with the exception of 3, that we'll study week 4). Examples AR hablaba hablábamos hablabas hablaba hablaban ER comía comíamos comías comía comían IR vivía vivíamos vivías vivía vivían Assignment 1. In oral and written form, practice the above verbs and others in the imperfect until you can recite them from memory. 2. Write a page about things you used to do (habitual, frequent actions). Use the imperfect heavily.
Papaya Class 3
LESSON 1: Some irregular verbs in preterite tense SER/IR fui fuimos fuiste fue fueron PONER puse pusimos pusiste puso pusieron PODER pude pudimos pudiste pudo pudieron (PODER in the preterite means to accomplish something that you were making an effort at. In the negative, it means to fail.) SABER supe supimos supiste supo supieron (SABER in the preterite means to find out.) LESSON 2: Preterite vs. Imperfect Tenses Both these tenses can describe the very same action, just from a different perspective. Preterite looks at the action as completed, overwith, very neat and tidy. Imperfect looks at the action as ongoing relative to other actions, not so neat or tidy. Examples: 1. Ayer manejé a Portland. (Yesterday, I drove to Portland.) 2. Cuando manejaba a Portland, escuché la radio. (When I was driving to Portland, I listened to the radio.) 3. Cuando escuchaba la radio, supe que había una venta especial en REI. (When I was listening to the radio, I found out that there was a sale at REI.) Note that in example 2, the exact same action as in example 1 (manejar),
ocurring at the exact same time on the exact same day, is expressed using
imperfect because, relative to the radio listening, the action began
before and finished afterward. Then in example 3, the same happens with
verb escuchar. ASSIGNMENT 1: Study and memorize these preterite forms of SER/IR, PONER, PODER and SABER. ASSIGNMENT 2: Write 3 series of sentences like the example series of 3 sentences above in Lesson 2
(you will wind up with 9 sentences total). Include at least on example of each of
the irregular verbs outlined above (SER, IR, PONER, PODER, SABER) in the preterite
and use them for inspiration. Double space your writing please. ASSIGNMENT 3: Read a book or article and bring it to class.
Papaya Class 4
Lesson: Irregular Verbs in the Imperfect There are only three: SER, IR, and VER SER era éramos eras era eran IR iba íbamos ibas iba iban VER veía veíamos veías veía veían ASSIGNMENT: 1. Study and practice these verbs in both written and oral form. 2. Write A story (DOUBLE SPACED) in which you use these verbs in the imperfect and practice the interplay of the preterite and imperfect in other verbs.Write about any experience you have had in the past. Write about what you did and what others did, paying special attention to verbs that give context to other verbs.
Papaya Homework Class 5
Lesson 1: Relflexive Verbs
The reflexive structure has several uses. This Class, we‘ll focus on one only.
In this first use, the subject of a transitive verb is the object of the same verb that he or she executes. (A transitive verb takes an object, like WASH, SEE, CUT.)
1.Simón baña el perro. (Simón bathes the dog.—not reflexive.)
Simón se baña. (Simón bathes himself.—reflexive.)
2. María lava los platos. (María washes the dishes.—not
María se lava las manos. (María washes her hands.—reflexive.)
Just about any transitive verb can be reflexive, but sometimes only in a poetic sense. Some verbs have a different meaning when they are reflexive. Some intransitive verbs can be reflexive and they fall in this category. More on that next Class.
Write ten pairs of sentences like the pairs in the examples above. In the first, use a transitive verb that is not reflexive. In the second, use the same verb reflexively. Also, and this is IMPORTANT, please pick up the new unit ("¿CÓMO ME VEO?") from the front porch.
Papaya Homework Class 6
Lesson: Relflexive Verbs: Independent versus Mutual Action
The first use of the reflexive structure (on which we focussed last Class) can be called INDEPENDENT: the subject is the direct or indirect object of his, her, or its own action.
Independientemente, Margarita y Ramón se miran en los espejos.
The second use (on which we‘re focussing this Class) can be called MUTUAL: two or more entities perform the same action and are themselves the object of the other‘s action.
Margarita y Ramón se miran con amor.
Note that the phrase "Margarita y Ramón se miran" can be an example
of either use. Another example:
Los hombres se ponen los sombreros.
This could mean, "The men put on hats," or "The men put hats on each other."
Write ten pairs of sentences like the pair made up of examples above. In the first, use the INDEPENDENT reflexive. In the second, use the MUTUAL reflexive. The context should make it clear which is which. Use plural subjects in all the sentences (nosotros, vosotros, ellos, ellas, ustedes, etc.).
Papaya Homework Class 7
Lesson: Relflexive Verbs: Passive Voice
The third use of reflexive verbs is to express the PASSIVE VOICE. The passive voice treats the object of a verb as the subject of a sentence. The true action in question has no stated subject. It‘s an impersonal way to express an action.
1. Aquí se habla español. (Spanish spoken here. Who‘s speaking it? It doesn’t matter.)
2. En esta tienda, no se venden libros. (In this store, books are not sold. Who‘s not selling them? It doesn’t matter.)
3. En Cuba se cultiva tabaco. (In Cuba tobacco is cultivated.)
The MEANING here is PASSIVE VOICE but the TECHNICAL STRUCTURE is REFLEXIVE. Note that in example 2, it‘s "No se VENDEN libros," (not VENDE). The form of the verb corresponds to the "subject" (libros) not to the unmentioned people who are supposed to be doing the action.
Write 10 examples of this use that have some sort of context as in the examples above.
Last updated 19 September 2017